Male Fertility is a health condition where the chances of female to get pregnant decreases. There are many reasons for male interfertility. The reasons of male infertility include sperm issues, swollen veins in testicles, genetic disorders, hormonal disorders, autoimmune disease etc.

Male infertility issues usually involve:

General Physical Examination

A healthcare professional will do the following checks to diagnose the problems behind male fertility, While doing the healthcare provider will do the below general examination:

  • Digital rectal exam to assess enlarged or inflamed prostrate
  • Abnormalities in genital areas
  • Hormonal disorders

Medical History

Medical history evaluation includes factors contributing to fertility where the healthcare will ask the following the details:

  • Family history of genetic disorders
  • Sextually transmitted infections
  • Medications impacting fertility
  • Lifestyle factors like nutrition and exercises

After gathering the medical and general history vizag ivf centre comes with a plan of which tests should be done and then chalk out the treatment options.

Semen Analysis

Semen Analysis is examining the semen under a microscope. It evaluates how much sperm is there, sperm activity and sperm shape.

  • pH scale. Your pH scale is the levels of acids and bases seen in semen. If semen is too acidic, it can affect the good health of your sperm. Normal range, is typically between 7.2 and 8.0.
  • Semen volume: The amount of sperm produced during ejaculation. Semen volume range is between 1.5 and 5 millilitres.
  • Sperm Density: Sperm density is number of sperms per millimetre of semen.
  • Sperm morphology: The size and shape of the sperm is known as sperm morphology
  • Sperm motility. Ability refers to the ability of sperms to move effectively. Sperm moving in straight line is essential for fertilisation.
  • Time to liquefaction. How long it takes the firm to be liquid.
  • Vitality. Count of live sperm in your semen sample.
  • White blood cells: If there are white blood cells in your sample it could indicate infections.

Scrotal Ultrasound

Scrotal ultrasound shows the imaging of main testicles by using sound waves. It helps in evaluating testicles, epididymis and scrotum. It is non-invasive and safe. The common uses of this study are the following:

  • Causes of inflammation and testicular pain
  • An abnormal enlargement of a vein in the scrotum draining the testicles.
  • Results of trauma in scrotum
  • Any cystic mass and its location
  • Blood flow in testicles and surrounding tissues

Benefits of Scrotal Ultrasound

  • Has no side effects and is safe?
  • It is fast, inexpensive and non-invasive way to assess problems in scrotum
  • ionizing radiation (X-rays) is avoided in this
  • Helps to detect soft tissues abnormalities

Transrectal Ultrasound

Transrectal Ultrasound helps imaging technique to examine the prostate gland and  surrounding tissues.

What are the reasons of conducting Transrectal Ultrasound:

  • Evaluating consistency and shape of the prostate gland
  • Understanding the causes of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels
  • Detecting tumours or inflammation
  • Identifying abnormalities in the ejaculatory ducts

Transrectal ultrasound helps in assessing male fertility. It is an effective way to identify issues related to prostate gland and ejaculatory ducts. 

Hormone Testing in Male Infertility

Hormone testing is an a very important evaluation with regards to male infertility. Hormonal imbalances can cause infertility due to inadequate sperm production and maturation. Key hormones evaluated in this test are below:

  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): It is made in pituitary gland and has an important function in making of sperm cells. Increased level of FSH indicates dysfunctioning of testicles.
  • Prolactin: It is hormone produced in pituitary gland which helps which ensures good reproductive health.
  • Thyroid Hormones-Thyroid hormones play a very important role in reproductive health and metabolism. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, can impact male fertility.
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH): This hormone is important for production of testosterone in testes and produced in pituitary gland.
  • Estradiol: In the testes Estradiol is a form of estrogen produced. It helps in modulating sperm production.
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG): It is a protein that binds the testosterone and impacts sperm production.

Post-Ejaculation Urinalysis

It is a test done of male urine after ejaculation. In retrograde ejaculation there a flow of semen into bladder than flowing out of urethra. retrograde ejaculation is a male fertility issue. With the help of medical therapies, it can be treated.

Testicular biopsy

A testicular biopsy is a procedure which involves the removal of a small tissue from one or both testicles when there are concerns of fertility or within the testicles. This diagnosis helps in treatment plans and fertility assistance.

Other Specialized Sperm Function Tests include Sperm Penetration Assay, Hypoosmotic Swelling Test (HOST), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Test, Sperm DNA Fragmentation Test, Antisperm Antibody Test.